Skip to content
Last update: December 1, 2021

Using clef

clef was introduced in Quorum v2.6.0.

clef for GoQuorum is the standard go-ethereum clef tool, with support for GoQuorum-specific features including:

  • Support for private transactions.
  • Ability to extend functionality with account plugins.

clef runs as a separate process to geth and provides an alternative method of managing accounts and signing transactions/data.

Instead of geth loading and using accounts directly, geth delegates account management responsibilities to clef.

Important

Account management will be deprecated within geth in the future and replaced with clef.

Using clef instead of geth for account management has several benefits:

Installing

You can install geth and all included tools (clef, bootnode, …) to PATH by building GoQuorum from source with make all.

Verify the installation with:

clef help

Getting started

Read the overview and step-by-step guide on clef initialization, startup, and automation rules configuration.

Using

clef can be used in one of two ways:

  1. As an external signer.
  2. As a geth signer.

Warning

In the long term, the preferred way of using clef will be as an external signer. However, while waiting for clef API support, the go-ethereum project has included the option to use clef as a geth signer. This ensures existing tooling and user flows can remain unchanged. The option to use clef as a geth signer will be deprecated in a future release of go-ethereum once the migration of account management from geth to clef is complete.

As an external signer

Using clef as an external signer requires interacting with clef through its RPC API. By default this is exposed over IPC socket. The API can also be exposed over HTTP by using the --http.addr CLI flag.

Example

An example workflow:

  1. Start clef and make your accounts available to it.
  2. Sign a transaction with the account by using clef‘s account_signTransaction API. clef returns the signed transaction.
  3. Use eth_sendRawTransaction or eth_sendRawPrivateTransaction to send the signed transaction to a GoQuorum node that doesn’t have your accounts available to it.
  4. The GoQuorum node validates the transaction and propagates it through the network for minting.
echo '{"id": 1, "jsonrpc": "2.0", "method": "account_list"}' | nc -U /path/to/clef.ipc
echo '{"id": 1, "jsonrpc": "2.0", "method": "account_signData", "params": ["data/plain", "0x6038dc01869425004ca0b8370f6c81cf464213b3", "0xaaaaaa"]}' | nc -U /path/to/clef.ipc

As a geth signer

Using clef as a geth signer doesn’t require direct interaction through the clef API. Use geth as normal and it automatically delegates to clef.

To use clef as a geth signer:

  1. Start clef.
  2. Start geth with the --signer /path/to/clef.ipc CLI flag.

An example workflow:

  1. Start clef and make your accounts available to it.
  2. Start geth and don’t make your accounts available to it.
  3. Use eth_sendTransaction to sign and submit a transaction for validation, propagation, and minting.

Extending with account plugins

By default, clef manages file-stored keystore accounts. You can enable alternative account management options using account plugins.

clef --plugins file:///path/to/plugin-config.json

More information

More information can be found in the .md files in the cmd/clef directory.

Back to top